Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental da Alta Paulista https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental <p>We are pleased to inform you that the <strong>Electronic Journal "Forum Ambiental da Alta Paulista"</strong> obtained the Qualis B1, according to a previous study of the new methodology for evaluating journals by CAPES (Official Letter No. 6/2019-CGAP/DAV/CAPES).</p> <p>The Electronic Journal "Forum Ambiental da Alta Paulista" is intended for the dissemination of scientific works, the result of empirical, experimental or conceptual research, resulting from master's, doctoral or similar researches.</p> <p>Magazine Focus - <strong>"Environment"</strong></p> <p><strong>Interdisciplinary</strong> <strong>Area</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>Attention - <strong>As of 2020 articles will be published in English and Portuguese.</strong></p> <p>For submission, articles authored or co-authored by undergraduate or graduate students will not be accepted, "all authors" must be linked to stricto sensu programs or have a minimum master's degree.</p> ANAP - Associação Amigos de Natureza de Alta Paulista pt-BR Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental da Alta Paulista 1980-0827 <div id="icpbravoaccess_loaded"> </div> <div id="icpbravoaccess_loaded"><strong><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licença Creative Commons" /></a><br />Esta obra está licenciada com uma Licença <br /><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional</a></strong></div> Circular Economy: The future in sustainable cities https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3193 <p>Cities are like living organisms that, to function, need resources and goods such as energy, raw materials, water, and food. After being used, the surplus of these resources is discarded, being directly responsible for most of the environmental impacts caused by human actions on the planet and not only in the territory where urban agglomerations are concentrated. Circular Economy arises to meet the need to reverse and contain the current scenario of exhaustion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity, introducing sustainable production and consumption. Its concept has been explored by different segments of society such as industries, academia, NGOs, government entities, among others, with multiple approaches and applications. Thus, this article, from a theoretical framework, explores the origins of the Circular Economy concept, providing a review of the main schools of thought that preceded it, and analyzes the common point of view on the Circular Economy concept. The article also identifies some scenarios in Brazil and in the world, whose countries and regions have stood out for their representativeness in the global context. It concludes with an insight on the current “status”, the future, and transition to Circular Economy.</p> Cecilia Emi Yamanaka Matsumura Heidy Rodriguez Ramos António José Guerner Dias Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223193 Renewable energies in cities: Perspectives for the use of biogas in Brazil https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3194 <p>One of the main challenges for the present and future of citiesare new energy sources that allow good efficiency and low environmental impact. In this sense, this study analyzed biogas, an energy source from the decomposition of organic matter. A theoretical essay was carried out from bibliographical research, with the aim of presenting the current scenario of the different perspectives of production and application of biogas in Brazil, in urban and rural areas of the country. The observed results showed that, in rural areas, the input for the production of biogas comes mainly from animal husbandry, and that the form of use is mainly directed towards obtaining thermal energy. In urban areas, practically all biogas production is carried out in sanitary landfills and sewage treatment plants, given the large amount of excess organic matter from the waste treatment activity. However, even though the country has relatively important indices of biogas production and use, it was clear from the theoretical framework analyzed that not only is the amount generated very low for generation potentials in Brazil, but there is also an evident lack of technologies in relation to biodigesters, in addition to a weak legislation to promote Brazilian biogas, which led to the conclusion that biogas production in the country is proceeding at a very slow pace. The study is limited in terms of detailing the barriers observed, and, therefore, it is suggested that future studies seek an in-depth analysis of these barriers.</p> Letícia Morais Neres Heidy Rodriguez Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223194 Photovoltaic Energy Systems Implemented in Public Buildings Located in the City of São Paulo https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3195 <p>With the increase of energy consumption and the environmental changes caused by energy generation, it is essential that different sectors of society seek alternative, sustainable and efficient ways to develop their activities. In this context, renewable energies generate less environmental pollution when compared to fossil sources. Among the renewable energy alternatives, solar energy has grown all over the world, thanks to new technologies, easy installation and energy collection, since it is powered by an abundant source with an inexhaustible impact on the earth's surface. Large buildings are considered potential polluters, as they can cause damage to the environment due to the amount of energy they use. The present study aims to analyze the photovoltaic solar system installed in a public building located in the city of São Paulo, specifically the project implemented in the Fazenda do Carmo Municipal Natural Park (PNMFC). A qualitative, single-case study, was the adopted methodology. Data collection was via the analysis of documents and semi-structured interviews with managers and those responsible for the PNMFC projects. The results showed that the generation of energy close to the place of consumption (distributed generation) is a determining factor for energy savings and minimization of environmental impacts. We conclude that public policies of fiscal and regulatory incentives are fundamental for the growth of the use of photovoltaic energy in urban centers</p> Joyce Éllen Santos de Oliveira Heidy Rodriguez Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223195 Use of recycled sand as a corrective material for soil acidity in soybean crops https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3197 <p>Acidity is one of the main factors capable of reducing the productive potential of Brazilian soils, as it promotes the release of toxic elements for plants and reduces the availability of nutrients. Recycled civil construction and demolition waste (R-CCW class A) is a major environmental problem in Brazilian cities, especially in terms of its illegitimate disposal, causing floods, clogging of galleries and silting of channels, in addition to the proliferation of vectors and pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of recycled sand (R-CCW) as a corrective of soil acidity, through soybean cultivation, in an experiment installed in PVA1 yellow-reddish with sandy/medium texture, acid and of low fertility with doses of 10, 20 and 40% of R-CCW, by mass, in Fernandópolis/SP. Variables related to soil fertility and to plants that were subjected to analysis of variance by F and comparison of averages by the Skott-Knott test at 5% probability were evaluated. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that recycled sand from civil construction R-CCW class A has favorable effects in terms of its ability to neutralize H<sup>+</sup> ions in the soil solution and those adsorbed to negative soil charges, important effects as an acidity corrective, in addition to providing increases in the contents of Ca, Mg, SB, CEC and V%, greater development of soybean plants, which indicates that this use is an environmentally correct alternative for the disposal of these residues.</p> Gisele Herbst Vazquez Andréa Cristiane Sanches Mateus Leonardo Welika dos Santos Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223197 Detection of the effect of the current water crisis on the reduction of the water surface of the Po River, Italy https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3236 <p>Italy has been dealing with a major environmental problem in recent times – the water crisis. It is known that this environmental problem can be caused by droughts, lack of rain, and pollution. In July 2022, the Italian government declared a state of emergency in five regions due to the intense water crisis, which coincided with one of the most severe droughts experienced in the last 70 years by the Italian territory. The 652 km-long Po River is the main and longest Italian river and has suffered greatly from the lack of water in its surroundings. This study aims to detect the changes that occurred in the Po River watershed by means of multispectral images (pre- and post-water crisis) obtained by the Sentinel-2 satellite. A methodology different from conventional ones is implemented, which highlights changes by the analysis of images acquired before and after the water crisis. The method is compared to conventional techniques that use subtraction of indexes for the detection of changes. The results obtained here are promising, as the proposed method is a fast and effective approach to mapping the effects of water crisis, besides potentiating the application of the methodology in other areas.</p> Eduardo Soares Nascimento Maria de Lourdes Bueno Trindade Galo Sandra Medina Benini Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-09 2022-10-09 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223236 Proposition and application of a method for the characterization of rural areas in the census sectors from the sanitation point of view https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3250 <p>Considering the concept of rurality, the need for methods to contextualize the rural areas and the attendance by sanitation services, the goal of this work was to propose and apply a method of characterization in census sectors (CS) of rural areas. For such, a classification method for rural clusters was built, considering the selected criteria based on the <em>Programa Saneamento Brasil Rural</em> (Rural Brazil Sanitation Program) and other technical-scientific literature. The method encompassed three criteria: the identification of clusters and dispersed households, distance from the cluster to the closest urban center (Cucd) and demographic density (Dd). Of all the 115 rural areas in the state of Goiás, it was possible to apply such in 98, as in the remaining 17 the method could not be directly applied, due to the existence of one or more clusters with the presence of households that do not make part of the rural area, that is, non-contiguous households. In a more detailed analysis, four areas were identified where the method could be applied to a group of households. A total of 103 rural areas were numbered, with an average Cucd of 27.7km (SD = 19.42; CV = 0.70), and average Dd of 50.1 inhabitants per square kilometer, in which 118 clusters were detected. Of that total, 6.79% were classified in the CS 1b and 2, 7.77% on 3 and 85.44% on 5 and 7. It was concluded that the method can be applied integrally in a rural area and/or clusters with contiguous households. Lastly, the classification in CS allows for a preliminary analysis of solution propositions for basic sanitation, being them collective and/or individual, centralized and/or decentralized, according to spacial technical criteria.</p> Roberta Vieira Nunes Pinheiro Isabela Moura Chagas Reviel Eurico Basso Juliana Dorn Nóbrega Nolan Ribeiro Bezerra Paulo Sergio Scalize Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223250 Public policies for environmental licensing: a study on municipalization in the state of São Paulo https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3126 <p>This article analyzes the implementation of the policy to decentralize public environmental management, focusing on the municipalization of environmental licensing. The mechanisms adopted by the municipality of Araraquara, SP, for its environmental licensing were methodologically compared to the mechanisms used in the municipality of São Carlos, SP, by the state of São Paulo, through the CETESB, which is the state environmental control agency. A bibliographic survey and document analysis of the public agencies were conducted. The research elucidated that municipalized environmental licensing did not decrease the time required to approve licenses and that no investments were made to update the analysis processes, unlike the state, which went through a process to virtualize its license requests. However, the municipality of Araraquara conducts a more thorough analysis of licensed businesses to mitigate environmental impacts. This municipality also has greater contact between municipal public officials and the community, which demonstrates benefits in decentralization.</p> Clemerson Luiz Pereira de Araujo Joelson Gonçalves de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223126 Synthesis and Analysis of Experiences in Ecosystem Services https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3106 <p>Considering that the initiatives of payment for environmental services (PES) are already a reality in Brazil, the present work aimed to promote a critical analysis of experiences in ecosystem services, so that new initiatives can take advantage of it to overcome difficulties in the implementation of PES projects and programs. Using systematization methods, ten experiences were synthesized and analyzed (Oásis Project; Bolsa Floresta Program; Conservador das Águas Project in Extrema/MG; Water Guardian Program; Ecosystem services in APA da Fazendinha; Quintais Amazônicos Project; BioREC Project – Mamirauá; REDD+ projects in practice and the evolution of voluntary markets; REDD+ opportunities for the Amazon; Carbono RECA Project). They were presented and discussed at the Amazon Ecosystem Services Experiences Seminar (online), held between March 23 and 26, 2021. PES projects are consolidated as important instruments to support the recovery and conservation of natural areas, and can contribute, in a transitional way, to other sustainable development initiatives in the Amazon. In deforested regions, crop converted lands, and regions under pressure of illegal deforestation, PES can support reforestation initiatives, combined or not with production systems, for the purposes of biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and water supply. Combining nature conservation through PES with sustainable production systems (Agroforestry, Forestry and Non-Timber Forest Products Management, Fisheries management and aquaculture, Regenerative Agriculture, Agroecological Livestock, among others) presents itself as a good alternative for the sustainability of the Amazon and for their people.</p> Bruno Scarazatti Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira Junior Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223106 Fertirrigation in coffee: agronomic and sustainable aspects https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3260 <p>The present work aims to relate the positive effects of irrigation and mineral nutrition on coffee productivity, considering that the various existing methods and techniques involve a wide variation of dosage and nutrient splitting, due to the interaction between soil, water, climate, plant and area where the crop is located. Thus, through the methodology of literature review, a survey of research and theoretical notes of issues related to the benefits of irrigation and mineral nutrition was carried out, culminating in the focus of the fertigation technique. The study took into account aspects related to the rational use of water, the prevention of soil desertification and the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda. The analysis of the works and authors consulted made it possible to bring to the academic-scientific scope approaches that highlighted the fundamental role of fertigation in coffee farming.</p> João Paulo Machado Mantovani Luis Roberto Almeida Gabriel Filho Camila Caroline Pantolfi Mantovani Alisson Rodolfo Leite Leandro Paloma Mantovani Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223260 Performance analysis of large wastewater treatment plants in Aracaju https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3102 <p>One of the biggest impacts on the country's water resources is the discharge of raw wastewater into rivers, which can be minimized with wastewater treatment. In this work, both the treatment systems performance used in four Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), which treat the domestic wastewater of Aracaju, and the compliance with the requirements of the current environmental legislation for the release of effluents were evaluated. To do so, physical-chemical, and bacteriological monitoring bulletins of the WWTPs were evaluated through the period of 1 year and 3 months. The WWTPs almost fully complied with all the conditions set out in the legislation for the parameters analyzed. Data analysis showed, in general, a better quality of the effluent from WWTP Orlando Dantas, with pollutant removal efficiencies very close to those found in the literature. However, the other stations, WWTP ERQ Norte, WWTP ERQ Sul and WWTP ERQ Leste, even fulfilling the legislation almost throughout all the studied period, achieved performance below expectations, due to the type of treatment technology adopted. With the evaluation of the results and the operating and maintenance conditions of the stations, it was concluded that there is a need to allocate resources for investments in a greater frequency of laboratory analysis and in the operation and maintenance of the infrastructure of the WWTPs. Furthermore, continuously training professionals involved in the operation of the systems will increase the performance of wastewater treatment structures. Consequently, there will have the improvement in the quality indices of treated wastewater, reduction of pollution and public health problems.</p> Matheus Carvalho Conceição Luciana Coêlho Mendonça Tatiana Máximo Almeida Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223102 Water loss performance indicators in peripheral areas of a metropolitan region in Amazonia https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3232 <p>This paper aims to quantify and compare the losses of two isolated water supply systems with similar characteristics (Canarinho e Benjamin Sodré), located in the Metropolitan Region of Belém, state of Pará, Amazonia-Brazil. The methods included diagnosis of systems, technical documental and commercial surveys from the water supply utility, outflow measurements (ultrasound portable outflow measurer and pitometer type equipment with transductor and data logger), statistical treatment of data and determination of the loss indexes of the water supply systems. The high Distribution Network Loss Index recorded of Canarinho and Benjamin Sodré with 81.98% and 70.04% respectively, jointly observed with Connection Losses Index values ​(3.2 and 7.3 times higher, respectively, compared to the national average) increased the Water Meter Index of the studied systems (Canarinho with 84.66% and Benjamin Sodré with 70.93%). The high water loss rates are a characteristic of the northern region of Brazil and are reflected in the data obtained from the studied systems. Losses of this magnitude make systems economically unsustainable due to frauds, lack of maintenece and a poor quality or degradation of infrastructure.</p> Antônio Jorge Silva Araújo Junior Alessandro Abadessa Viegas Lindemberg Lima Fernandes Luiza Carla Girard Mendes Teixeira Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223232 Sustainable Urban Mobility in the São Paulo State https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3300 <p>Resilient cities are those that, exposed to risks, have the ability to resist, absorb, adapt and recover, in a planned and efficient manner. Currently, one of the greatest weaknesses in the world is environment related, therefore, it is urgent to rethink the way cities are developing. In this essay, the issue of air pollution will be addressed, mainly in relation to urban mobility. Based on air quality data and strategic mobility actions, some reflections will be raised taking into account the directed aspects and systemic vision of the process.</p> Geise Brizotti Pasquotto Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223300 Environmental Basin - History of Billings Reservoir’s Construction https://publicacoes.amigosdanatureza.org.br/index.php/forum_ambiental/article/view/3310 <p>This article, as part of a doctoral research, discusses, based on a historical survey, the main aspects that contributed to the formation of the so-called – Greater ABC of São Paulo region, with emphasis on the urbanization process that radiated mainly during the 19th century from the city of Sao Paulo. In that context, two developments were recognized as inducing the transformation of the space – the railroad and the dam. For this study, its understanding was paramount to understand the various aspects that contributed to the territorial configuration of this important region of São Paulo, considering that this region is known for its economic and financial grandeur. However, when carefully observing the data referring to the arrangement of the municipalities that make up the greater ABC, as well as high HDI indices, one has the idea of ​​a region that has achieved significant development, but the data and information found emphasize that this condition does not is homogeneously distributed, bearing in mind that there are socio-spatial inequalities among the seven municipalities in the region, which are materialized in various asymmetries stamped in the urban landscape of each municipality. In summary, it appears that this critical situation is the result of a wrong and incipient planning process that, among other aspects, led to an intense process of degradation of water bodies, in addition to intensifying situations of socio-environmental vulnerabilities.</p> Jeane Aparecida Rombi de Godoy Angélica Tanus Benatti Alvim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 18 2 10.17271/1980082718220223310